Hibernate is a pure Java object-relational mapping (ORM) and persistence framework that allows you to map plain old Java objects to relational database tables. Hibernate is an ORM framework, allows the mapping of the Java domain object with database tables.
The main building blocks in hibernate architecture includes Configuration, Session Factory, Session, Query, First-level cache, Transaction, Persistent objects, the Second-level cache. It allows developers to map the object structures of normal Java classes to the relational structure of a database. With the help of an ORM framework, the work to store data from object instances in memory to a persistent data store and load them back into the same object structure becomes easier.
Hibernate consists of three different components:
The classes that are mapped by Hibernate to the tables of a relational database system are simple Java classes.
The information in these files is used at runtime to perform the mapping to the data store and back to the Java objects.
Hibernate Query Language
When using Hibernate, queries send to the database do not have to be formulated in native SQL but can be specified using Hibernate’s query language
Some of the features of Hibernate includes
JPA provider: JPA is a set of specifications for accessing, persisting, and managing data between Java objects and relational database entities.
Idiomatic persistence: Any class that follows object-oriented principles such as inheritance, polymorphism, and so on, can be used as a persistent class.
High performance and scalability: Hibernate supports techniques such as different fetching strategies, lazy initialization, optimistic locking, and so on, to achieve high performance, and it scales well in any environment.
Easy to maintain: It is easier to maintain as it requires no special database tables or fields. It generates SQL at system initialization time. It is much quicker and easier to maintain compared to JDBC.
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